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第九节:非谓语动词

时间:2022-06-13 21:07 来源:网络整理 转载:幽悠飘雪网
第九节:非谓语动词

  一、非谓语动词种类及句法功能

  (一)概述:

  在英语中,不作句子谓语,但仍具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有动词不定式(the Infinitive);动名词(the Gerund);现在分词(the Pre

sent Participle);过去分词(the Past Participle)。

  (二)非谓语动词的句法功能

  1)逻辑主语

  为了强调是谁发出的一个动作,我们往往要有主语来明确表现。由于非谓语动词在句中不做谓语,所以强调谁发出的动作就不明显。但它又有动词的某些特征,在这种情况下,就有了其逻辑上的主谓关系。在英语中,非谓语动词的逻辑主语各有其不同的表现方式,也是,嫉囊桓鲇锓ㄏ钅浚绕涫嵌屎头执实穆呒饔铩O衷诶醇蛞治鲆幌略诓欢ㄊ健⒍屎头执手械穆呒饔铩

  ① 不定式的逻辑主语是同过介词of 和for来体现的。这两个介词使用的区别是:当表语是表示主语的性质或特征时(如:good, nice, wise, generous, foolish, clever, silly, wrong, stupid, careless, considerate, impolite, naughty等等),我们使用of; 其它的使用for。请看例句:

  It is unwise of them to turn down the proposal. 他们拒绝这个建议很不明智。

  It is generous of you to stay us for the night. 难为你这么慷慨留我们过夜。

  It is a great honor for us to attend this rally. 我们很荣幸参加这个大会。

  It is very dangerous for children to swim in the reservoir. 孩子们在水库里游泳很危险。

  ② 动名词的逻辑主语是在动名词前用名词或代词来表现的。在句首时一般要使用所有格,在句中一般使用其通格。例如:

  Mary’s grunting continuously annoyed her husband, and her mother’s staying with them was the last straw.

  玛丽的不断唠叨已经使她丈夫很烦,她母亲来和他们一块住更使他们的关系雪上加霜。

  Xiao Li’s being late for school upset the teacher.

  小李的迟到让老师很恼火。

  Our sole worry is (you) your relying on youself too much.

  我们唯一的担心是你这个人太相信自己了。

  They in***ted (Xiao Wang) Xiao Wang’s going with them together.

  他们坚持要小王和他们一块走。

  ③ 分词的逻辑主语有两种:一是悬垂分词的逻辑主语,其二是独立主格结构的逻辑主语。在悬垂结构中,分词的逻辑主语就是主句的主语,如果两者不能构成逻辑上的一致关系则该句结构是错误的.如:

  Seen from the space, the earth look like a blue ball. 从太空看起来,地球像个兰色的球体。

  这个悬垂结构seen from the space = when the earth is seen, …

  Laughing and chatting, the puples left school for home. 孩子们说说笑笑回家去了。

  同上述结构一样,Laughing and chatting = the pupils were laughing and chatting, …

  独立主格结构与悬垂结构不同的是独立结构有自己的主语。这个主语有名词或代词通格来表示,放于分词之前,与分词形成逻辑上的主谓关系。例如:

  So many comrades being absent, the meeting had to be put off.

  这么多****都缺席了,所以会议只得延期。

  We all went home, he remaining behind. 我们都回家了,只有他留在后面。

  Weather permitting, we will go for an outing next week. 如果天气许可,我们下周去郊游。

  The class (being) over, the teacher dismissed the students. 下课了,老师把学生打发走了。

  The job done, we all went home. 工作完成之后,我们就都回家去了。

  With the tree grown tall, we get more shade. 岁着树的不断长高,树阴也越来越浓密了。

  Everything taken into consideration, this plan seems to be more feasible.

  把一切考虑在内,这个计划看起来可行。

  They worked throughout the night with the lamp lighted. 他们挑灯夜战。

  2)宾语

  第一类是有些动词之后面只能使用动名词做宾语。这些动词有:admit(承认),acknowledge, appreciate(感激), avoid, consider, contemplate, delay, deny, detest, endure, enjoy, excuse, evade, face, finish, facilitate, fancy, favor, forgive, can’t help, imagine, include, involve, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, pardon, resent, re***t, require, risk, stand, suggest, understand, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent … (from), keep … from, stop …(from, protect … from, set about, be engaged in, spend … (in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, in***t on, feel like等等。如:

  They haven’t finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。

  We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。

  He is considering changing a job. 他正在考虑换个工作。

  第二类是既能带动名词又能带不定式作宾语的动词:attempt, begin, cease, continue, dread, forget, hate, intend, like, neglect, omit, prefer, propose, remember, start, try. 具体使用情形请看下述详细解释:

  ① 在begin, start, continue, like, hate, cease等后可以使用两种结构,无有区别。如:

  Will you continue gardening/to garden after dinner? 饭后你继续干花园的活,好吗,

  She likes to be flattered/being flattered. 她喜欢别人奉承她。

  ② need, want, require, deserve等动词表示“需要,值得”时,有两种结构可以用:一是使用动名词的主动式表被动;二是使用不定式的被动式。两者没有意义上的区别。如:

  The flowers want watering. = The flowers want to be watered. 花该浇水了。

  My hair needs cutting. = My hair needs to be cut. 我的头发该理了。

  His performance deserves praising. = His performance deserves to be praised.

  他的工作应该受到表扬。

  ③ remember, forget, regret等后面使用动词不定式表示未发生的动作;而使用动名词时表示已经发生的动作。如:

  I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment.

  我很遗憾地通知你我们无法安排你的就业。

  I regret being unable to help you. 我很遗憾当时未能帮你。

  Don’t forget to post the letter on your way to work. 别忘了上班的路上把信寄走。

  I forget posting the letter you gave me thins morning. 我忘了把你今天早上给我的信发走。

  ④ try后跟动名词表示“试一试”;和动词不定式连用表示“努力,试图”。

  This foreign guest tried writing with the Chinese brush. 这位外国客人试着用毛笔写字。

  He tried to cheat the old man out of his money. 他试图骗这老头的钱。

  ⑤ mean, intend后跟动名词表示“意味着”;接不定式表示“打算”。如:

  Today, I intend to finish reading this book. 今天我打算读完这本书。

  What he said at the meeting means his going abroad next year.

  他在会上说的意思是他要出国。

  ⑥ prefer后使用动名词还是不定式有这么两种情况:当我们谈论一般情况时和当我们说在两种活动之间更喜欢哪一种的时候,一般使用动名词;另一种是和不定式连用,一般用来引导另一个短语。如:

  Do you like swimming? ------- Yes, but I prefer sailing.

  你喜欢游泳吗 ,--- 当然。但是我更喜欢驾驶帆船。

  Can I give a lift? ----No, thanks, I would prefer to walk.

  你顺便坐我的车走好么 ,---- 不用了,谢谢!我喜欢步行。

  I prefer reading to going shoping on weekends. 周末我喜欢读点书,不喜欢逛街。

  I would prefer to spend the weekend at home rather than drive/driving all the way to your mother’s. 我觉得与其开车跑那么远到你母亲那里过周末,倒不如在家更好些。

  ⑦ allow, advise, forbid, permit等在没有人做宾语的情况下接动名词;如果有人做宾语时则用不定式。如:

  Sorry, we don’t allow smoking in the lecture room. 对不起,教室不准抽烟。

  We don’t allow people to smkoe here. 我们不许人们在这里抽烟。

  I wouldn’t advise taking the car --- there’s nowhere to park.

  我不建议开车去,因为没有停车的地方。

  I wouldn’t advise you to take the car. 我劝你不要开车去。

  第三类是带to的短语。而实际上这个to是介词,如果不加区分,一律把它看作是动词不定式的小品词的话,很容易判断失误。这一类的短语主要有:attribute … to, owe … to, devote … to, contribute … to, be used to, be accustomed to, look forward to, pay attention to, object to, oppose to, in addition to等。如:

  I am looking forward to hearing from her as soon as possible.

  我在盼望着尽快收到她的来信。

  He strongly opposed to traveling by air. 他强烈反对乘****。

  3)动词不定式和分词用做宾语补足语

  动词不定式和分词都可以用做宾语补足语来补充说明宾语的动作和状态。其区别在于不定式表示一个完整的动作,而分词则表示一个完整动作的过程。如:

  I sawe her get on the tractor and drive it away. 我看见她上了拖拉机把它开走了。

  I smelled something burning in the kitchen. 我闻到厨房什么东西有股糊味。

  一般而言,能这样用的动词分为两类:第一类动词既可后接不定式又可接现在分词和过去分词:接不定式时表示一个完整的动作;接现在分词时表示宾语是动作的发出者,表示一个完整动作的一个过程;而接过去分词时,宾语则成为动作的承受者。这类动词有:see, hear, make, let, have, watch, feel, find, notice, observe, look at, listen to。如:

  I heard somebody sing an English song in the next room.(表示一个完整的动作)

  I hear somebody singing an English song in the next room.(表示完整动作的一个片段)

  I heard an English song being sung in the next room.(表示完整动作的一个片段)

  I heard an English song sung in the next room.(表示一个完整的动作)

  第二类动词一般表示“致使”,要用分词做补足语:have, set, keep, get, catch, leave等。

  The sight of the inviting melon in such a hot summer day set me watering.

  在这么炎热的夏天看到那些诱人的西瓜着实令我口水****。

  You won’t catch me doing that again. 我绝不会再做那事了。

  His remarks left me wondering about his real purpose.

  他的一番话禁不住让我疑惑他的真实意图。

  The smoke started her coughing. 烟呛得她直咳嗽。

  4)动词不定式和分词用作状语

  根据对非谓语动词词性的分析,大家知道,动词不定式和分词同时还具有副词的词性特征,因此能在句子中充当状语。

  与分词不同的是,动词不定式在句中做状语时,主要表示目的、结果、原因;而分词做状语主要表示时间、原因、条件、让步、结果、目的、伴随等。

  一般判别二者之间的区别使用是根据不同的标志词来确定的,或者说用marker来确定它们。例如,动词不定式表示目的的有in order to, so as to。表示结果的有:so … as to, such … as to, enough to, too … to等。请看例句:

  He shouted so as to be noticed.(目的)

  She started early in order to avoid the rushing crowds.(目的)

  Would you be so kind as to lend me your bike?(结果)

  He is such a fool as to think that his idle chat can influence others.(结果)

  The boy is old enough to look after himself.(结果)

  His eyesight is too poor to read such small letter.(结果)

  She wept to hear the news.(原因)

  I rejoiced to hear that my son had been admitted into the famous university.(原因)

  分词的表现形式是通过悬垂结构的句意来判断的,但是要请注意,悬垂结构中的逻辑主语一定是后面主句中的主语,检验的办法就是用主句的主语很分词结构还原成一个状语从句。如:

  ① 时间

  Looking up suddenly, Robert saw a rainbow in the sky.

  Floating on water, a ship displaces an amount of water equal to its own wweight.

  Hearing the news that her son was rescued, she felt greatly relieved.

  ② 原因

  Not knowing how to pronounce the word “plough”, the Frenchman looked up it in a dictionary.

  Considering the importance of the experiment, they checked the result again and again.

  Living in a remote village, we rarely have visitors coming.

  ③ 条件

  This same thing, happening in the peacetime, would be a great disaster.

  Unless meeting with unexpected difficulties at the office today, I shall be home early tonight.

  ④ 让步

  Granting the achievements to be great, we have no reason to be conceited.

  Walking and sleeping, he has the plan in his mind.

  The chemical composition of water is H2O, whether being solid, liquid or vapor.

  ⑤ 结果

  Their car was caught in the traffic jam, thus causing their delay.

  We introduced a lot of advanced devices, thus saving much time and labor.

  ⑥ 目的

  The people are working hard, striving to realize our country’s modernization.

  We held a meeting, marking the anniversary of his death.

  ⑦ 方式(也称做伴随)

  Theu stood by the roadside, watching the parade.

  She stood motionlessly vacantly, looking at the sea.

  They sat together, studying carefully the design of the new project.

  5)省略不定式小品词to的情形

  在不定式中,小品词to有时可以省略。主要在以下几种情形中:

  ① 在由make, let, see, feel, watch, have, hear, help, notice, observe, listen to, look at等动词引出的作宾语补语的情况时。

  ② 在介词but, except, besides 后(动词谓语必须是do,否则还需要小品词to)。如;

  What do you like to do besides swim and play football?

  Before breakfast we have no class but (except) to read English aloud.

  When the enemy surrounded the house, they had no choice but to burn all the important documents.

  ③ 在had better, had best, had as good(宁可), would rather … than, would sooner … than, might as well, rather than后。如:

  He had as good study English instead of German. 他宁可学英语也不愿意学德语。

  They would rather try and fail than give it up. 他们宁愿试了失败也不愿意轻易放弃。

  Let’s finish the work now rather than leave it off till tomorrow.

  我们最好今晚把这活干完也别推到明天。

  He resigned rather than take part in such a diahonest transaction.

  他宁愿****也不愿干这桩肮脏的****。

  I would rather die standing than live kneeling. 我宁愿站着死不愿跪着生。

  ④ 在下列固定词组中。

  We’ll have to make do with dry bread. 我们用干面包凑合吧。

  He made believe he was innocent. 他假装无辜。

  Don’t let slip such a good opportunity to learn. 不要丢失这样一个好机会。

  He let go (of) the rope. 我松了绳子。

  I hear say that there’ll be an earthquake soon. 我听说不久要有****。

  Don’t let there be any noise. 不要再制造噪音了。

  二、非谓语动词考查点

  1) 谓语动词与非谓语动词的判断

  对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格结构,如:

  1. All flights ___ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train.

  A. had been canceled B. have been canceled

  C. were canceled D. having been canceled

  【答案】D。

  【解析】独立主格结构做状语表示原因。

  2) 谓语动词后不定式与动名词的选择

  谓语动词后接不定式还是接动名词也是语法测试中的一个题点。如:

  1. I don’t mind ____ the decision as long as it is not too late.

  A. you to delay making B. your delaying making

  C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make

  【答案】B。

  【解析】这是一个带有逻辑主语的动名词结构。依据前面所讲,逻辑主语应是一个带有形容词性的物主代词,其后的动词delay也应该是一个动名词。

  3) 做定语的非谓语动词的选择

  从近几年的考查情况来看,对做定语的非谓语动词的考查有两种情况:对一般概念的考查,而不是固定结构中的非谓语动词做定语。

  4) 做状语的非谓语动词的选择: 做状语的非谓语动词主要考查其各种形式的选择,如: ______ from the outer space, our earth looks like a water-covered ball.

  A. Having seen   B. Seeing   C. Seen D. Having been seen

  【答案】C。

  【解析】根据分词结构的逻辑主语分析,选项A、B、D都不能和主句中的主语构成逻辑的主谓一致的关系。惟有选项C是正确答案。

  从以上各题来看,考查的侧重点有:

  (1)状语类别的判断:不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,目的状语要求用不定式,如②。

  (2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系:根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。

  (3)非谓语动词的否定形式:not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前,如③。

  (4) 独立成分:有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制,称为独立成分,这类成 分只记忆即可。如: generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等。

  5) 做补足语的非谓语动词的选择

  做宾语补足语的非谓语动词受谓语动词的限制,不同动词后的宾语补足语形式要求不同。近几年对各类宾补都有考查。如:

  They are going to have the service man ________ an electric fan in the office tomorrow.

  A. install   B. to install   C. to be installed   D. installed

  【答案】A。

  【解析】have 之后的宾语如果是补足语的发出者时,则应使用动词原形。

  6) 做表语的非谓语动词的选择

  表语的考查多侧重于分词做表语形式的选择,很少有动名词的用法的考查,虽然选项中有不定式作为干扰项,只要能看出是做表语的也就不用考虑。如:

  These surveys indicate that many crimes go _____ by the police,mainly because not all victims report them.

  A. unrecorded   B. to be unrecorded   

  C. unrecording   D. to have been unrecorded

  【答案】A。

  【解析】分词做表语可以做系动词be的表语,也可以做其它系动词的表语,如go, feel, seem, look, remain等等。这些系动词后非谓语动词的饿用法规则是相同的。

  7) to作为介词与作为不定式符号的选择

  to可以是介词,也可以用来引导不定式,英语各类****中对此用法的考查也比较多。如:

  The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager of the company.

  A. have told   B. be told   C. being told   D. having told

  【答案】D。

  【解析】这类考题的考查方式有两种,一是四个选项中有两个相对的选项to do something 和 to doing something,这时考查的自然是to的性质;另一种是to在题干中。

  8) 分词前连词的使用

  分词前连词的使用是为了使分词的作用更加明了,使考生更加准确地理解试题。考查有两种情况:

  (1)根据连词选择适当的分词形式

  Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ______.

  A. scolding   B. to scold   C. having scolded   D. scolded

  【答案】D。

  【解析】when的使用说明非谓语动词做时间状语,答案不可能是B,从scold与句子主语间的逻辑关系来看,应该是动宾关系,所以答案是D。

  (2)根据状语的功能选择不同的连词

  Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patient do not take drugs ___ directed.

  A. like   B. so   C. which   D. as

  【答案】D。

  【解析】由上下文的意思可以看出,分词所做的是方式状语,连词应该是as。

  9) 非谓语动词的体

  非谓语动词中分词的体有完成体和进行体,即having done, having been done和being done,完成体只用于做状语的场合,而进行体可以用于做定语和做补足语。

  动名词的体也有having done, having been done和 being done的结构主要用于做主语和宾语的场合。 不定式的体有to be doing 和to have done,主要用于pretend, happen, seem, appear, be said to等结构中。如:

  I’d rather read than watch television; the programs seem ____ all the time.

  A. to get worse   B. to be getting worse   

  C. to have got worse   D. getting worse

  【答案】D。

  【解析】从all the time的使用可以推断get worse是一个渐变过程,所以用不定式的进行体。

  10)动名词复合结构

  动名词符合结构可以做主语、宾语和表语,在对动名词的考查中总是将其逻辑主语包括进来,形成动名词的复合结构:

  _____ in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for.

  A. The girl was educated   B. The girl educated

  C. The girl’s being educated D. The girl to be educated

  【答案】D。

  【解析】本题涉及题眼比较多,A,为从句做主语,但缺少that,D为不定式做主语,但缺少for(for the girl to be educated),B结构不能做主语,答案是C,为动名词的复合结构。

  三、非谓语动词结构强化练习

  1. The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.

  A. have writtenB. to be writtenC. being writtenD. written

  2. What’s the language ____ in Germany?

  A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken  D. to speak

  3. _____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

  A. FollowedB. Followed byC. Being followedD. Having been followed

  4. In order to be a good scientist, ____.

  A.mathematics is vital B.one must master mathematics

  C.mathematics is important to understand D.one to understand mathematics

  5. The terrible noise is __________ me mad.

  A. turning B. driving C. setting D. putting

  6. ___________ he was a regular customer, the **** allowed 10% discount off the prices of the goods.

  A.Giving B.Given that C.Giving that D.To give that

  7. All flights _________ because of the heavy storm, we decided to take the train.

  A.having canceled B.being canceled

  C.having been canceled D.canceled

  8. ________ bricks, workers press clay into blocks and bake them to the requisite hardness in a kiln.

  A) Made B) To make C) Being made D) The making of

  9. I desired nothing but ________ home.

  A. go B. to go C. going D. went

  10. No further discussion _________, the meeting was brought to a close.

  A. arising B. raising C. arousing D. rising

  四、非谓语动词练习详解

  1.【答案】D。

  【解析】书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written

  2.【答案】B。

  【解析】spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:. What’s the language (which is) spoken in German?

  3.【答案】B。

  【解析】Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:With some officials following,

  4.【答案】B。

  【解析】 题干 “in order to be a good scientist” 是目的状语,句子缺少主句。根据不定式做目的状语时,其逻辑主语是主句主语的原则,可判定主句的主语应该是人而不是物,据此可排除A、C两项。而D项缺少谓语,不成为句子。只有B项为正确答案。

  5.【答案】B。

  【解析】四个单词中只有drive可以接复合宾语:宾语+宾语补足语。故B为正确答案。

  6.【答案】B。

  【解析】Given放句首,后跟名词或从句,然后再跟主句是固定句型,given充当介词使用,表示假设、假定、已知等意思,常译为“考虑到……,如果有……”。如:Given his age, this child really did a good job.考虑到他的年纪,小男孩的确干得不错。

  7.【答案】C。

  【解析】此处独立主格用作原因状语。因为flights是cancel的逻辑宾语,又置于cancel之前,因此cancel应用被动形式,而且航班的取消应发生在我们决定坐火车之前,所以用完成时态。因此C为正确选项。

  8.【答案】B。

  【解析】句子需要的是目的状语,而D是不能作状语的。根据空白后的宾语bricks,可排除被动形式的being made,又根据过去分词短语用作状语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况,所以A不对,而B不定式短语作状语表行为目的,正合适。

  9.【答案】B。

  【解析】这里but=except。 but有时接无to 的不定词。当but前面有do(did,done,doing)的时候,but后面接没有to的不定词。例:I did nothing but go home。如果but前用的是其他动词,but 后面的不定词就要加上to。

  10.【答案】A。

  【解析】arise .vi.出现,常用于抽象事物,如问题,冲突等。arouse vt.引起,激起。raise vt.提高。rise vi.上升,升起,常指具体的高度、价格等由低到高。

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